Palm and Pine Tree Treatment
Palm Tree Treatment
The Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus has become a serious pest of palm trees in Iberia. Originally from tropical Asia, this beetle reached Spain in the mid-1990s. Its effect on palms in areas it has invaded has been devastating. Although originally localised in Spain, there has been a population explosion during the past few years. This has led to the loss of thousands of palms, at great expense.
Red Palm Weevils are large insects. Adults may reach a length of 5cm. As with most weevils, a prominent rostrum is present, with the mouthparts located at the end of this. This rostrum makes the Red Palm Weevil appear to have a large snout. Given its size, rostrum and bright red colouration with variable black markings, the Red Palm Weevil is unmistakeable. Adults have diurnal habits, making their detection easier. Larvae live within palms and can reach a large size. The grubs can be separated from larvae of other beetle species that live in palms such as chafers (most notably the black Potosia opaca) because the larvae of the Red Palm Weevil lack legs, whereas the larvae of chafers have six small legs. Unlike the Red Palm Weevil, these chafers feed on rotting material and will not damage healthy palms.
Red Palm Weevils can be present on a palm all year round. As long as sufficient live plant material is present on a palm, the weevils will continue to feed on a plant and lay their eggs on it, so that infestations within single palms can continue to grow for several generations until they reach hundreds of beetles. Once palms can no longer offer enough food, adults will disperse to find new plants to infect. Gravid females will prefer to lay their eggs on palms that are diseased or in a bad condition. Although Red Palm Weevils are active all year round, adults are most active and numerous during the summer months. They have a considerable ability to disperse and are capable of flying in excess of three kilometres a day.
A range of palm species have been reported as affected by the Red Palm Weevil. In Spain, this beetle is most commonly reported infesting Phoenix species, with records of weevils on Washingtonia being less regular. Infestations are common in the Canary Palm Phoenix canariensis and the Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera, but the Canary Palm seems to be the most seriously affected species. Mature palms are most susceptible, making the damage incurred more costly.
Advantages of SOSPALM injector:
Effective system for preventive and curative treatments.
Low cost control of the RED PALM WEEVIL.
Respectful to the environment (insecticide doesn’t came into contact with the environment).
Only one installation and repeated use.
Avoids additional bore-holes.
Avoids the risk of fungus infections.Hermetic waterproof closure.
Makes injection easier: open the stopper, introduce insecticide and close again until next treatment.
The allen-closure makes unauthorized manipulation difficult, particulary in the case of smaller trees.
Pine Tree Treatment
Defoliation of needles is the main symptom of PPM attack displayed by the tree itself. Complete defoliation of needles can occur where there is a high level of infestation. Otherwise the nests formed by the caterpillars in January are the most obvious signs of the moth being present. Caterpillars feed at night during the winter, when fewer people are visiting woodlands.
The life-cycle of PPM is different from OPM's. PPM caterpillars overwinter in tent-like nests high in pine trees, and form processions on the ground in early spring before pupating in the soil until late summer, when they emerge as adult moths. This pupal stage can, however, remain dormant, extending the life cycle over two years.The adult moths live for only about a day in the summer, during which time they mate and lay eggs in pine trees.PPM larvae, or caterpillars, hatch in autumn from the eggs laid in the summer, and begin feeding on the trees' needles in autumn.
People and animals should keep away from and not touch the caterpillars or nests. Old, abdandoned nests can still contain thousands of the irritating caterpillar hairs which can cause severe skin irritations. Parents, guardians, teachers and others responsible for children's welfare should teach them the dangers, and dog owners and walkers should keep dogs away from the caterpillars and nests.People with symptoms who thought they might have been in contact with the hairs should seek medical advice, explaining that they believed they had been in contact with PPM hairs.
Similarly, pet and livestock owners whose animals displayed symptoms should consult a veterinary surgeon and explain that the animal might have been in contact with PPM hairs.There are many ways to fight and control the pine processionary plague. Highly recommended is knowing the larval phases or cycles. Another way of controlling is by means of chemical treatments like the cipermetrin or triclofor, directly spraying it over the nests in wintertime. We have to stress on using these products by qualified personnel, as these are toxic and harmful products. When the plague is spread over 5 hectares it can be carried out an aerial treatment, by spraying insecticides that inhibit the growth, such asdiflubenzuron. There are bacteriological insecticides used as the traditional insecticides, they do not affect the other insects but when the processionary caterpillars eat the leaves of the treated pines, they die.
A natural form of elimination is to cut, gather and burn the nests in wintertime, or to bring down the nests, preferably in the evening, this way the night's cold enters them and brings the caterpillars to death. It is compulsory to be extremely careful with the manipulation of the nests for the nettlerash effects that might occur. It is possible to make some traps, by sticking bag-shaped plastic around the pine; this way the processionary caterpillars are trapped, and then eliminated.
Pine trees (trees of the genus Pinus) are most susceptible to attack, with the following species being particularly susceptible: Austrian pine (Pinus nigra), Aleppo pine (P. halepensis), Canary Island pine (P. canariensis), lodgepole pine (P. contorta), Maritime pine (P. pinaster), Monterey or radiata pine (P. radiata), Scots pine (P. sylvestris) and stone pine (P. pinea). Other recorded hosts include the Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica) and European larch (Larix decidua).